JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MOSES OF MAINZ (d. c. 1200), German scholar, halakhic authority, paytan, and kabbalist. He was the pupil of Shemariah b. Mordecai in Speyer, and of Judah he-Ḥasid , who taught him mysticism. During the Third Crusade (1189–93) Judah braced his community to face the approaching trials and inspired them to repentance. Among his prominent pupils were his son Eleazar (who stated that he had received the mystical interpretation of the prayers and other kabbalistic knowledge from his father), eliezer b. joel ha-levi , and baruch b. samuel , the author of Sefer ha-Ḥokhmah. His halakhic decisions are quoted in the works of the earlier authorities. He wrote seliḥot and piyyutim. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Landshuth, Ammudei, 78; Davidson, Oẓar 4 (1933), 392; Aptowitzer, Mavo le-Sefer Ravyah (1938), 252, 342–3; Urbach, Tosafot, 303f., 321–4. (Yehoshua Horowitz)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • KALONYMUS — KALONYMUS, one of the most eminent Jewish families in Germany which flourished from the 9th to the 13th century, especially in the cities near the Rhine. Among its members were numerous rabbis, preachers, poets, teachers, authors, moralists, and… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • SIMḤAH BEN SAMUEL OF SPEYER — (second half of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century), German scholar. He may have been a descendant of Judah ha Kohen, author of the Sefer ha Dinim (see Aptowitzer). Simḥah was one of the rabbis and dayyanim of the Speyer bet din… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • JOEL BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI — (1115?–1200), one of the eminent talmudic scholars of Mainz. Little is known about his life. He was related on his maternal side to some of the most distinguished families of the generation, including that of samuel b. natronai (his cousin, or… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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